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Calcite, the main cause of scale, is the most common form of calcium carbonate and occurs naturally as a natural ingredient of chalk, limestone and marble. Water passing over and permeating through such rocks dissolves calcite. When this water subsequently flows through a water system, the calcite precipitates out to form a very hard scale on surfaces.

When hard water is heated, or evaporation takes place, the problems are exacerbated. Calcite forms ever growing layers of rock-like deposits until eventually pipes, jets and equipment become totally blocked.

The problem increases as the water gets hotter. Water containing 145 ppm of calcite, flowing at 3.5 litres per minute, produces in one year 4.8 kilograms of scale at 60ºC. At 80ºC this rises dramatically to a massive 29.9 kilograms!

Scale wastes both energy and financial resources just one eighth of an inch of scale reduces heating efficiency by 25%. It is also very expensive to remove, de-scaling pipes and boilers alone costs British Industry over £800M each year.

The formation of scale in a boiler heating system has three important effects:

  • Causes kettling noises in the pipework.

  • Reduced efficiency and therefore higher costs of heating.

  • Increases the thermal stress in the metal pipework.

Watermation Ltd can supply scale inhibitors and treat systems to prevent the build up of scale, resulting in improved heating efficiency, reduced heating costs and a longer service life of boilers, pumps, pipework, valves and other fittings.

As you will see from the map on the right, a large part of England is supplied with differing degrees of hard water...and that means limescale!

Don't wait till it's too late because the solution to the problem is cheaper than replacing your boiler / heating system and parts.

  scale inside pipe
Typical build-up of limescale inside a hot water pipe, restricting the flow of water.

Map showing the rate of hardness in mg/l as calcium carbonate in England and Wales.
(Click to enlarge)
watermap key

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